Interactive Edge (iEdge)

We are a lively group of roughly 20 experts under the Center for Ubiquitous Computing at the University of Oulu – some of us also work in other universities and others in industry. We define edge intelligence in collaboration with an international edgeAI community comprising experts of distributed computing and artificial intelligence in computer science and engineering, as well as experts of networking in communication engineering.

Edge computing distributes applications between the cloud, data producing devices, and devices at the edges of wireless and fixed networks. Edge computing brings AI methods closer to the physical environment. This enables deep integration of AI with applications supporting humans in their activities and with machines to realise autonomous systems. AI is integrated with the edge computing platform as well, for example, to decide optimal locations for computations

We study situation-aware, self-organizing and self-managing software platforms that use efficiently edge computing infrastructures for 5G and beyond. We enable trust with distributed ledger technologies and privacy-by-design methods. We push edge computing to the limits by embedding computations and AI into physical objects that are digitally fabricated to fit to their purpose. We use distributed artificial intelligence, big data tools, and machine learning methods to explore situation awareness for both end-user applications and the edge computing platform. We implement AI methods in ethical manner and emphasise testing in real environments. We expect our research to shed light on how humans can benefit from edge computing and how it can be used to realise resource-efficient systems.


Our team teaches several fundamental courses in the University of Oulu Computer science degree programme. We also teach in the University of Oulu Graduate school, as well as provide continuous learning courses through Fitech and Reboot Skills project.

Our group pages under



Aarne Mämmelä : Professor Emeritus

Aarne Mämmelä
Professor Emeritus
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Jukka Riekki : Professor, Dean of ITEE

Jukka Riekki
Professor, Dean of ITEE
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Sasu Tarkoma : Professor (part-time)

Sasu Tarkoma
Professor (part-time)
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Susanna Pirttikangas : Research Director, Docent, Deputy Director of UBICOMP

Susanna Pirttikangas
Research Director, Docent, Deputy Director of UBICOMP
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Iván Sánchez Milara : University Teacher

Iván Sánchez Milara
University Teacher
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Ekaterina Gilman : Postdoctoral researcher

Ekaterina Gilman
Postdoctoral researcher
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Abhishek Kumar : Postdoctoral researcher

Abhishek Kumar
Postdoctoral researcher
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Lauri Loven : Postdoctoral researcher

Lauri Loven
Postdoctoral researcher
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Hassan Mehmood : Postdoctoral researcher (part-time)

Hassan Mehmood
Postdoctoral researcher (part-time)
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Prasasthy Balasubramanian : Doctoral researcher

Prasasthy Balasubramanian
Doctoral researcher
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Marta Cortés Orduña : Doctoral researcher

Marta Cortés Orduña
Doctoral researcher
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Amirhossein Ghaffari : Doctoral researcher

Amirhossein Ghaffari
Doctoral researcher
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Huong Nguyen : Doctoral researcher

Huong Nguyen
Doctoral researcher
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Alaa Saleh : Doctoral researcher

Alaa Saleh
Doctoral researcher
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Saeid Sheikhi : Doctoral researcher

Saeid Sheikhi
Doctoral researcher
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Shouhua Zhang : Doctoral researcher

Shouhua Zhang
Doctoral researcher
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Tarek Ali : Research Assistant

Tarek Ali
Research Assistant
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Jani Launonen : Project Engineer

Jani Launonen
Project Engineer
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Mohammad Mahdi Salmani : Project Researcher

Mohammad Mahdi Salmani
Project Researcher
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Ijlal Khan : Research Assistant

Ijlal Khan
Research Assistant
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Talha Zeeshan : Research Assistant

Talha Zeeshan
Research Assistant
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Selected publications:


Nguyen H, Nguyen HT, Lovén L, Pirttikangas S (2024): Stake-Driven Rewards and Log-Based Free Rider Detection in Federated Learning, 21st Annual International Conference on Privacy, Security, and Trust (PST2024), IEEE Computer Society, accepted.

Ghaffari A, Nguyen H, Saleh A, Lovén L, Gilman E (2024): Traffic Accident Prediction and Warning System: Integration Use Case, KDD Workshop on Knowledge-infused Learning, 30TH ACM SIGKDD 2024, accepted

Sheikhi S (2024): Advancing Security in 5G Core Networks through Unsupervised Federated Time Series Modeling, IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (IEEE CSR) 2024, accepted.

Balasubramanian P, Seby J, Kostakos P (2024): CYGENT: A cybersecurity conversational agent with log summarization powered by GPT-3, IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Internet of Things (AIIoT 2024), accepted

Gilman, E., Bugiotti, F., Khalid, A., Mehmood, H., Kostakos, P., Tuovinen, L., Ylipulli, J., Su, X., Ferreira, D. (2024): Addressing Data Challenges to Drive the Transformation of Smart Cities, ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technologies, DOI

Lähderanta T, Lovén L, Ruha L, Leppänen T, Launonen I, Riekki J, Sillanpää MJ (2023): Capacitated spatial clustering with multiple constraints and attributes, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Volume 127, Part A, 2024, 107182, ISSN 0952-1976,


Su, A., Gilman, E., Liu, X. (2023) Towards Semantic Web of Things: Reference Architecture and Gap Analysis, IEEE 16th International Conference on Internet of Things (Things 2023)

Norouzi B, Iivari N, Kinnula m, Sánchez Milara I (2023): Challenges in Starting to Design and Make Together: Examining Family Engagement in Fab Labs, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.

Geng W, Zhang Y, Kutscher D, Kumar A, Tarkoma S, Hui P (2023): SoK: Distributed Computing in ICN, ICN’23: 10th ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking, Reykjavik, Iceland, October 9-10, 2023, ACM, DOI

Norouzi B, Sharma S, Kinnula M et al. (2023): Enabling children’s genuine participation in digital design and fabrication: instructors’ perspective. Int J Technol Des Educ. DOI

Lovén L et al (2023): Semantic Slicing across the Distributed Intelligent 6G Wireless Networks,” 2023 20th Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON), Madrid, Spain, 2023, pp. 79-84, DOI

López OLA, Rosabal OM, Ruiz-Guirola DE, Raghuwanshi P, Mikhaylov K, Lovén L, Iyer A (2023): Energy-Sustainable IoT Connectivity: Vision, Technological Enablers, Challenges, and Future Directions,” in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, vol. 4, pp. 2609-2666, 2023,

Motlagh NH et al. (2023): Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Pollution Monitoring: A survey,” in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, DOI.

Motlagh NH, Lovén L, Cao J, Liu X, Nurmi P, Dustdar S, Tarkoma S, Su X (2023): Edge Computing: The Computing Infrastructure for the Smart Megacities of the Future, IEEE Computer, pp. 54-64, DOI

Mämmelä A, Riekki J, Kiviranta M (2023): Loose Coupling: An Invisible Thread in the History of Technology, IEEE Access, vol. 11, pp. 59456-59482, 2023,

Lovén L, Shahid HF, Nguyen L, Harjula E, Silvén O, Pirttikangas S, Bordallo López M (2023): Semantic Slicing across the distributed intelligent 6G wireless networks, 2nd Workshop on Semantic Communication for 6G Organised in Conjunction with IEEE SECON 2023, DOI

H Hartikainen, L Ventä-Olkkonen, M Cortés, I Sánchez Milara, M Käsmä, L Kuure. Making The Future School: An Analysis of Teens’ Collaborative Digital Fabrication Project”. The 26th ACM Conference On Computer-Supported Cooperative Work And Social Computing (CSCW2023), DOI

Lähderanta T, Lovén L, Ruha L, Leppänen T, Launonen I, Riekki J, Sillanpää MJ (2023): Capacitated spatial clustering with multiple constraints and attributes, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Elsevier​, DOI

Preprint: Lovén, L., Morabito, R., Kumar, A., Pirttikangas, S., Riekki, J., & Tarkoma, S. (2023). How Can AI be Distributed in the Computing Continuum? Introducing the Neural Pub/Sub Paradigm. arXiv preprint DOI

Nguyen TH, Nguyen H, Partala J, Pirttikangas S (2023): TrustedMaaS: Transforming trust and transparency Mobility-as-a-Service with blockchain, Future Generation Computer Systems, Elsevier


Kumar A, Lee LH, Chauhan J, Su X, Hoque M, Pirttikangas S, Tarkoma S, Hui P (2022): FedClean: A Defense Mechanism Against Parameter Poisoning Attacks in Federated Learning, ACM Multimedia 2022, DOI

Cao J, Kit-Yung Lam, Lik-Hang Lee, Xiaoli Liu, Pan Hui, Xiang Su (2022): Mobile Augmented Reality: User Interfaces, Frameworks, and Intelligence, ACM Computing Surveys, DOI.

Hoque, M. A., Finley, B. J., Rao, A., Kumar, A., Hui, P., Ammar, M., & Tarkoma, S. Context-driven Encrypted Multimedia Traffic Classification on Mobile Devices. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom), IEEE. DOI

Preprint: Kokkonen H, Lauri Lovén, Naser Hossein Motlagh, Juha Partala, Alfonso Gonzalez-Gil, Ester Sola, Inigo Angulo, Madhusanka Liyanage, Teemu Leppänen, Tri Nguyen, Panos Kostakos, Mehdi Bennis, Sasu Tarkoma, Schahram Dustdar, Susanna Pirttikangas, Jukka Riekki (2022): Autonomy and Intelligence in the Computing Continuum: Challenges, Enablers, and Future Directions for Orchestration, arXiv preprint DOI

Kumar A, L-H. Lee, J. Chauhan, X. Su, M.A. Hoque, Susanna Pirttikangas, Sasu Tarkoma & Pan Hui (2022): PassWalk: Spatial Authentication Leveraging Lateral Shift and Gaze on Mobile Headsets. In 30th ACM International Conference on Multimedia: MM ’22 ACM. DOI

Kumar A, Vivek Khimani, Dimitris Chatzopoulos, Pan Hui (2022): FedClean: A Defense Mechanism Against Parameter Poisoning Attacks in Federated Learning, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) 2022, DOI

Lovén L, Ella Peltonen, Leena Ruha, Erkki Harjula, Susanna Pirttikangas (2022): A dark and stormy night: Reallocation storms in edge computing, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 1/2022, pp. 1-21, DOI

Nguyen H, Tri Nguyen, Teemu Leppänen, Juha Partala, Susanna Pirttikangas (2022): Situation Awareness for Autonomous Vehicles Using Blockchain-Based Service Cooperation. In: Franch, X., Poels, G., Gailly, F., Snoeck, M. (eds) Advanced Information Systems Engineering. CAiSE 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 13295. Springer, Cham. DOI.

Motlagh NH, Lauri Loven, Jacky Cao, Xiaoli Liu, Petteri Nurmi, Schahram Dustdar, Sasu Tarkoma, Xiang Su (2022): Edge Computing: The Computing Infrastructure for the Smart Mega-cities of the Future, Computer, a publication of the IEEE Computer Society. DOI

Peltonen E, Ijaz Ahmad, Atakan Aral, Michele Capobianco, Aaron Yi Ding, Felipe Gil-Castiñeira, Ekaterina Gilman, Erkki Harjula, Marko Jurmu, Teemu Karvonen, Markus Kelanti, Teemu Leppänen, Lauri Lovén, Tommi Mikkonen, Nitinder Mohan, Petteri Nurmi, Susanna Pirttikangas, Paweł Sroka, Sasu Tarkoma, Tingting Yang (2022): The Many Faces of Edge Intelligence, IEEE Access, DOI.

Su L, Yong Niu, Zhu Han, Bo Ai, Ruisi He, Yibing Wang, Ning Wang, Xiang Su (2022): Content Distribution Based on Joint V2I and V2V Scheduling in mmWave Vehicular Networks, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 3201-3213, March 2022, DOI.

Yin Z, Mayowa Olapade, Mohan Liyanage, Farooq Dar, Agustin Zuniga, Naser Hossein Motlagh, Xiang Su, Sasu Tarkoma, Pan Hui, Petteri Nurmi, Huber Flores, (2022): Toward City-Scale Litter Monitoring Using Autonomous Ground Vehicles, in IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 74-83, 1 July-Sept. 2022, DOI


Mämmelä, A., Riekki, J. Systems view in engineering research. Integrated Science Series, Vol. II: Transdisciplinarity across the Different Disciplines. N. Razaei, Ed. Springer Nature Switzerland, DOI

Lee, L.H., Braud, T., Hosio, S., Pan Hui. Towards Augmented Reality-driven Human-City Interaction: Current Research and Future Challenges, ACM Computing Survey, DOI

Nguyen, T.H., Lovén, L., Partala J., and Pirttikangas, S. Blockchain: Foundations and Role in 6G, 6G Mobile Wireless Networks (Springer), DOI

Xu, D., Li, T. Li, Y., Su, X., Tarkoma, S., Jiang, T., Crowcroft, J., Hui, P. Edge Intelligence: Empowering Intelligence to the Edge of Network, Proceedings of IEEE, DOI

Lähderanta, T., Lovén, L., Leppänen, T., Ruha, L., Harjula, E., Ylianttila, M., Riekki, J., Sillanpää, M.J. Edge computing server placement with capacitated location allocation, J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, DOI

Hartikainen, H., Cortés Orduña, M., Käsmä, M., Sánchez Milara, I., Ventä-Olkkonen, L. Make4Change: Empowering Unemployed Youth through Digital Fabrication, FabLearn 2021, DOI

Lovén, L., Lähderanta, T., Ruha, L., Peltonen, E., Launonen, I., Sillanpää, M.J., Riekki, J., Pirttikangas, S., EDISON: An Edge-native Method and Architecture for Distributed Interpolation, Sensors, DOI

Current projects:

Smart Climate Adaptation & Resilience, Neuroclima, Ubicomp lead: Susanna Pirttikangas, Ekaterina Gilman, PM: Prasasathy Balasubramnian
A Cognitive Detection system for Cybersecure Operational Technologies, Ubicomp lead: Susanna Pirttikangas (responsibility from Panos Kostakos on 03/2024), Technical co-coordinator: Lauri Lovén, PM: Saeid Sheikhi
ARTiFAB (ESF), Ubicomp lead: Marta Cortés Orduña
Neural pub/sub (Business Finland 6G bridge research project), Lead Sasu Tarkoma, University of Helsinki/University of Oulu, co-PI: Riekki, PM: Lovén
Better Factory (H2020), Ubicomp lead: Susanna Pirttikangas
What a healthy city feels like? (Infotech Emerging project), PI: Ekaterina Gilman
EFFICACY (Indificore) 2022-2024, PI: Pirttikangas, PM: Abhishek Kumar

Past projects:

urBOT (Academy of Finland postdoctoral grant), PI: Ekaterina Gilman
6G Logistics (Business Finland co-creation), Ubicomp lead: L. Lovén
Holonet: Holographic Communications and Networking in the Next Generation Wireless Networks, (FARIA The Finnish-American Research & Innovation Accelerator) 2023-2024, PI: Tarkoma, PM: Abhishek Kumar
Bridging the Creativity Gap (Erasmus+), Lead Netta Iivari, Ubicomp lead: Jukka Riekki
FRACTAL ECSEL-JU  Cognitive Fractal and Secure Edge Based On Unique Open-Safe-Reliable-Low Power Hardware Platform Node
Make4Change (ESR)
Context-aware and Veracious Big Data Analytics for Industrial IoT (ABIDI) (Academy of Finland)
Personalization, Privacy and Quality Control for MaaS with Blockchain (TrustedMaas) (Infotech)
Bayesian Trusted Edge Analytics (B-TEA) (Infotech)
5G Edge Computing Enhanced Augmented Reality (5GEAR) (Academy of Finland)
PRIORITY (Business Finland)
Reboot Finland IoT Factory (Business Finland)
Open Infra Ecosystem I (Business Finland)
S2ERC – APPIA – UoU, Profiling User Activity for Security with Ethical Oversight (ProFile) (Business Finland)
5G Vertical Integrated Industry for Massive Automation (5G VIIMA) (Business Finland)
Coastal Urban developmenT through the LEnses of Resiliency (CUTLER) (H2020)
Edge computing enhanced by artificial intelligence (MEC-AI) (Future Makers)
Virtuaaliset palvelut kiinteistöalalla (Virpa-D) (Business Finland)